archaeological phenomenology

Thus we must see the years 1811-13 as a watershed whose streams run in one direction back to Tudor times, in another forward to the factory legislation of the next hundred years.  The Luddites were some of the last Guildsmen, and at the same time some of the first to launch the agitations which lead on to the Labour Movement. In both directions lay an alternative political economy and morality to that of laissez faire. During the critical decades of the Industrial Revolution, working people suffered total exposure to one of the most humanly degrading dogmas in history — that of irresponsible and unlicensed competition — and generations of outworkers died under this exposure. It was Marx who saw, in the passage of the 10 Hour Bill (1847), evidence that for ” the first time … , in broad daylight the political economy of the middle class succumbed to the political economy of the working class.” The men who attacked Cartwright’s mill at Rawfolds were announcing this alternative political economy albeit in a confused midnight encounter. 

Thompson, E. P. (1991). The making of the English working class.
Part III, Section XIV, Part iv., p. 435.